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Add Time£º2014/3/6 15:52:02
1.      Cooking meat 'may be dementia risk'
Cooking meat 'may be dementia risk'
Browning meat in the oven, grill or frying pan produces chemicals which may increase the risk of developing dementia, US researchers suggest.
Advanced glycation end (AGE) products have been linked to diseases such as type-2 diabetes.
Mice fed a high-AGEs diet had a build-up of dangerous proteins in the brain and impaired cognitive function.
Experts said the results were "compelling" but did not provide "definitive answers".
AGEs are formed when proteins or fats react with sugar. This can happen naturally and during the cooking process.
The animal experiments, published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, showed that a diet rich in AGEs affects the chemistry of the brain.
It leads to a build-up of defective beta amyloid protein - a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. The mice eating a low-AGEs diet were able to prevent the production of damaged amyloid.
The mice performed less well in physical and thinking tasks after their AGEs-rich diet.
A short-term analysis of people over 60 suggested a link between high levels of AGEs in the blood and cognitive decline.
"Because cures for Alzheimer's disease remain a distant hope, efforts to prevent it are extremely important, but this study should be seen as encouraging further work, rather than as providing definitive answers.
2.      Child health problems 'linked to father's age'
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Health and science reporter, BBC News,
Child health problems 'linked to father's age'
James Gallagher
A wide range of disorders and problems in school-age children have been linked to delayed fatherhood in a major study involving millions of people.
Increased rates of autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, suicide attempts and substance abuse problems were all reported.
The study, in JAMA Psychiatry, suggests mutated sperm were to blame.
However, experts say the benefits older dads bring may outweigh any problems.
The investigation by Indiana University, in the US, and Sweden's Karolinska Institute has been described as the largest and one of the best designed studies on the issue.
The researchers looked at 2.6 million people and at the difference between siblings born to the same father as it accounts for differences in upbringing between families.
Comparing children of a 45-year-old dad to those of a 24-year-old father it indicated:
l  autism was more than three times as likely
l  a 13-fold increased risk of ADHD
l  double the risk of a psychotic disorder
l  25 times more likely to have bipolar disorder
l  times more likely to have suicidal behaviour or problems with drugs
l  lower scores at school
There was no starting point after which the risk started to increase, rather any increase in age had an associated increase in risk.
He told the BBC: "The implications of the study is that delaying childbearing is also associated with increased risk for psychiatric and academic problems in the offspring.
Sperm are produced constantly throughout a man's lifetime. As the sperm-making mechanism ages, so too do the number of errors - older sperm have more mutations which may be damaging.
He said the risks were low and that even a doubling or trebling of risk would still affect a small proportion of people.
"Having said that, with the demographic change we have seen in the last decade, on a population level this is a concern and we might expect higher rates of psychoses now and in the future."
He added that older dads bring many advantages such as more stable relationships and higher income, which "probably outweigh" any risks.
3.       Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells within nanocaged POSS-PCU scaffolds: A new tool for nanomedicine
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine, Volume 10, Issue 2 , Pages 279-289, February 2014
Chondrogenic differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells within nanocaged POSS-PCU scaffolds: A new tool for nanomedicine
Leonardo Guasti, PhDemail address, Barbora Vagaska, et al.
Scaffold cellularization for cartilage engineering can aid implant properties, their retention and minimize repeated intervention, particularly in paediatric reconstructive craniofacial surgery. We developed novel bionanoscaffolds using paediatric adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs), an accessible autologous cell source, and POSS-PCU. Little is known about cellular responses to this nanomaterial, though it was used in human. We assessed: 1) POSS-PCU cellularization and bioaffinity to hADSCs; 2) hADSC chondrogenic differentiation ability in POSS-PCU; 3) whether bionanoscaffolds became encased within a vascular network and/or vascularised. POSS-PCU supported ADSC survival and proliferation and their migration and differentiation into cartilage within the nanoscaffold. Furthermore, after CAM-grafting, bionanoscaffolds were rapidly surrounded by blood vessels without any apparent negative reaction and erythrocytes of host origin were detected inside the scaffold, suggesting invasion from some capillaries. Altogether, this study demonstrates that POSS-PCU displays excellent bioactivity and hADSC/POSS-PCU bionanoscaffolds offer much promise for autologous cell-based tissue engineering for clinical applications.
4.      Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Cell, Volume 156, Issue 5, 1072-1083, 20 February 2014
Neurogenesis in the Striatum of the Adult Human Brain
Aur¨¦lie Ernst, Kanar Alkass, Samuel Bernard, et al.
In most mammals, neurons are added throughout life in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. One area where neuroblasts that give rise to adult-born neurons are generated is the lateral ventricle wall of the brain. We show, using histological and carbon-14 dating approaches, that in adult humans new neurons integrate in the striatum, which is adjacent to this neurogenic niche. The neuronal turnover in the striatum appears restricted to interneurons, and postnatally generated striatal neurons are preferentially depleted in patients with Huntingtons disease. Our findings demonstrate a unique pattern of neurogenesis in the adult human brain.
5.       700-Year-Old Poop Tracks History of Human Gut Microbes
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Applied and Environmental Microbiology
700-Year-Old Poop Tracks History of Human Gut Microbes
Sandra Appelt et al.
The bacteria that live in your intestines are territorial little suckers. When new microbes arrive, the natives fight them off with antibiotics. The invaders respond by developing immunity to these compounds. So the native bacteria in your gut¡ªknown as the microbiome¡ªdevelop ever stronger antibiotics. This war has likely been waging in the human intestine for eons, but scientists have had little evidence of its history.
That¡¯s now changed, thanks to a surprise find in Namur, Belgium. An urban development project there unearthed some historic bowel movements in 1996. Excavation under a town square revealed latrines from the Middle Ages buried 4 meters deep. Each held sealed barrels of human waste that had not been aired out in nearly 700 years.
Paleomicrobiologists carefully extracted the fossilized feces¡ªknown as coprolites (they look a bit like poop-shaped rocks)¡ªfrom the barrels to prevent modern bacteria and viruses from contaminating the medieval microbes. A preserved fecal deposit eventually plopped into the virology lab of Christelle Desnues at the Research Unit on Infectious and Emerging Tropical Diseases (URMITE) in Marseille, France.
Her team bored into the coprolite, extracting a piece of its core approximately the weight of a nickel. Electron microscopy exposed viruslike structures peppered throughout the samples. When the team sequenced the genomes of all the viruses in the ancient poop, they discovered that most of them were bacteria-loving viruses called bacteriophages, or ¡°phages¡± for short. Phages are the cargo ships of the bacterial world, picking up genes from one bacterium and transferring them to another. Occasionally, this process instills their bacterial hosts with an evolutionary advantage. Indeed, researchers have observed modern-day phages shipping antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria that cause infections, thus increasing their virulence.
A broader diversity of antibiotic resistance genes were observed in the coprolite. ¡°It was surprising that the ancient stool had more [antibiotic resistance] genes than modern stool samples,¡± says Jeremy Barr, a microbiologist at San Diego State University in California who was not involved with the study. If this coprolite specimen is representative of the time period, then the reduction in these genes over time may reflect that modern sanitation in food or water supplies have weakened the defenses of gut bacteria, he says.
Interestingly, Desnues¡¯s team¡¯s research reveals that the phages also carried metabolic genes that equip host bacteria with the ability to process fats and amino acids, which may be the traits that made them so useful to our intestines in the first place. Members of the human microbiome help us digest food, temper inflammation, and may fight obesity¡ªso their resistance to antibiotics actually benefits us.

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