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Weekly Reports ㄗ106ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
Add Timeㄩ2013/12/20 15:16:24
1.              Youth-drug can 'reverse' ageing in animal studies
▽Text abstracts▼Dec 20, 2013 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-25445748
Youth-drug can 'reverse' ageing in animal studies
By James Gallagher
US scientists have performed a dramatic reversal of the ageing process in animal studies.
They used a chemical to rejuvenate muscle in mice and said it was the equivalent of transforming a 60-year-old's muscle to that of a 20-year-old - but muscle strength did not improve.
Their study, in the journal Cell, indentified an entirely new mechanism of ageing and then reversed it.
Other researchers said it was an "exciting finding".
Ageing is considered a one-way street, but now researchers at Harvard Medical School have shown that some aspects can be reversed.
Their research focused on a chemical called NAD. Its levels naturally drop in all cells of the body with age.
The team showed this disrupted the function of the cell's in-built powerstations, mitochondria, leading to lower energy production and ageing.
Experiments showed that boosting NAD levels, by giving mice a chemical which they naturally convert into NAD, could reverse the sands of time.
One week of youth-medication in two-year-old mice meant their muscles became akin to those of a six-month-old in terms of mitochondrial function, muscle wastage, inflammation and insulin resistance.
Dr Ana Gomes, from the department of genetics at Harvard Medical School, said: "We believe this is quite an important finding."
She argues muscle strength may return with a longer course of treatment.
2.      Severed hand kept alive on man's ankle
▽Text abstracts▼Dec 16, 2013 http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-25405543
The procedure was carried out to keep Mr Wei's hand alive
Chinese doctors have saved a man's severed hand by grafting it to his ankle, it is reported.
Xiao Wei lost his right hand in an accident at work but could not have it reattached to his arm right away. Instead, the hand was kept alive by stitching it to Mr Wei's left ankle and "borrowing" a blood supply from arteries in the leg.
A month later, surgeons were able to remove the hand and replant it back on his arm, according to Rex Features.
According to the report, Mr Wei's doctors from the Changsha region say he will need to undergo several other operations but they are hopeful that he will regain full function of his hand.
"His injury was severe. Besides ripping injuries, his arm was also flattened.
"We had to clear and treat his injuries before taking on the hand reattachment surgery."
Mr Cairian Healy of the Royal College of Surgeons in England said although procedures such as these were rare, they were not inconceivable. "The Chinese are pretty experienced in microsurgery," he said.
"And the concept of saving a severed part of the body by attaching it to another part of the body to give it a blood supply is well recognised.
"The ankle is a hard place to graft though. Usually surgeons would go for the armpit because the blood supply is better."
He said there were many reasons why a surgeon might not want or be able to reattach a hand to its rightful home straightaway.
"The patient might not be fit enough for the surgery. It can take a skilled surgeon between eight and 15 hours to reattach a hand."
The vital factor is keeping the hand alive.
On ice, it may survive slightly longer, but Mr Healy said few surgeons would contemplate replanting a hand that had been detached for more than a few hours because the muscle inside it would be dead.
He said that, sadly, not all replantations are a success. Some patients do not like the end result and may later opt for amputation because of side-effects, such as pain and stiffness.
3.       Does the "Rule of Nines" Apply to Morbidly Obese Burn Victims?
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Burn Care & Research, July/August 2013 - Volume 34 - Issue 4 - p 447-452
Does the "Rule of Nines" Apply to Morbidly Obese Burn Victims?
Williams, Rachael Y. & Wohlgemuth, Stephen D.
Assessing the percent BSA involved in a burn is essential in patient management. The ※Rule of Nines§ is one traditional method of estimating BSA. This rule assumes that adults have the same distribution of BSA percentages, regardless of body shape and weight. With increasing obesity, the percentages assigned to each body part may deviate from this formula. This project investigates the applicability of the ※Rule of Nines§ to the obese patient population. Two hundred obese adults underwent three-dimensional whole body scanning using a commercially available white light scanning device. Software was programmed to determine the surface area of the arms, torso, and legs. A measurement of TBSA and percentages associated with those body parts was derived. Additional software was used to quantify body shapes as android, gynecoid, or mixed. Height, weight, body mass index, and *** were tabulated and a statistical analysis was performed. The average surface area of the torso, arms, and legs differed among the obese and nonobese population. The surface area of the torso, arms, and legs in the obese patient was 52, 7, and 15% respectively compared with 36, 9, and 18% in the nonobese population (P = .98). Android shapes had an average torso surface area of 53% while gynecoid shapes had an average torso surface area of 48% (P = .97). A ※rule of sevens§ appears to be a more appropriate method for estimating BSA in the morbidly obese patient.
4.       Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition
▽Text abstracts▼Int J Burns Trauma. 2013; 3(3): 159每163.
Serum albumin levels in burn people are associated to the total body surface burned and the length of hospital stay but not to the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition
Joaqu赤n P谷rez-Guisado, Jes迆s M de Haro-Padilla, & Luis F Rioja, et al.
Objective: Serum albumin levels have been used to evaluate the severity of the burns and the nutrition protein status in burn people, specifically in the response of the burn patient to the nutrition. Although it hasn*t been proven if all these associations are fully funded. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the relationship of serum albumin levels at 3-7 days after the burn injury, with the total body surface area burned (TBSA), the length of hospital stay (LHS) and the initiation of the oral/enteral nutrition (IOEN). Subject and methods: It was carried out with the health records of patients that accomplished the inclusion criteria and were admitted to the burn units at the University Hospital of Reina Sofia (C車rdoba, Spain) and UAB Hospital at Birmingham (Alabama, USA) over a 10 years period, between January 2000 and December 2009. We studied the statistical association of serum albumin levels with the TBSA, LHS and IOEN by ANOVA one way test. The confidence interval chosen for statistical differences was 95%. Duncan*s test was used to determine the number of statistically significantly groups. Results: Were expressed as mean㊣standard deviation. We found serum albumin levels association with TBSA and LHS, with greater to lesser serum albumin levels found associated to lesser to greater TBSA and LHS. We didn*t find statistical association with IOEN. Conclusion: We conclude that serum albumin levels aren*t a nutritional marker in burn people although they could be used as a simple clinical tool to identify the severity of the burn wounds represented by the total body surface area burned and the lenght of hospital stay.
5.       Differences in Resuscitation in Morbidly Obese Burn Patients May Contribute to High Mortality
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Burn Care & Research, September/October 2013 - Volume 34 - Issue 5 - p 507-514
Differences in Resuscitation in Morbidly Obese Burn Patients May Contribute to High Mortality
Rae, Lisa; Pham, Tam N.; & Carrougher, Gretchen; et al.
The rising number of obese patients poses new challenges for burn care. These may include adjustments in calculations of burn size, resuscitation, ventilator wean, nutritional goals as well as challenges in mobilization. The authors have focused this observational study on resuscitation in the obese patient population in the first 48 hours after burn injury. Previous trauma studies suggest a prolonged time to reach end points of resuscitation in the obese compared to nonobese injured patients. The authors hypothesize that obese patients have worse outcomes after thermal injury and that differences in the response to resuscitation contribute to this disparity. The authors retrospectively analyzed data prospectively collected in a multicenter trial to compare resuscitation and outcomes in patients stratified by National Institutes of Health/World Health Organization body mass index (BMI) classification (BMI: normal weight, 18.5每24.9; overweight, 25每29.9, obese, 30每39.9; morbidly obese, ≡40). Because of the distribution of body habitus in the obese, total burn size was recalculated for all patients by using the method proposed by Neaman and compared with Lund每Browder estimates. The authors analyzed patients by BMI class for fluids administered and end points of resuscitation at 24 and 48 hours. Multivariate analysis was used to compare morbidity and mortality across BMI groups. The authors identified 296 adult patients with a mean TBSA of 41%. Patient and injury characteristics were similar across BMI categories. No significant differences were observed in burn size calculations by using Neaman vs Lund每Browder formulas. Although resuscitation volumes exceeded the predicted formula in all BMI categories, higher BMI was associated with less fluid administered per actual body weight (P = .001). Base deficit on admission was highest in the morbidly obese group at 24 and 48 hours. Furthermore, the morbidly obese patients did not correct their metabolic acidosis to the extent of their lower BMI counterparts (P values .04 and .03). Complications and morbidities across BMI groups were similar, although examination of organ failure scores indicated more severe organ dysfunction in the morbidly obese group. Compared with being normal weight, being morbidly obese was an independent risk factor for death (odds ratio = 10.1; confidence interval, 1.94每52.5; P = .006). Morbidly obese patients with severe burns tend to receive closer to predicted fluid resuscitation volumes for their actual weight. However, this patient group has persistent metabolic acidosis during the resuscitation phase and is at risk of developing more severe multiple organ failure. These factors may contribute to higher mortality risk in the morbidly obese burn patient.
6.      Human Epidermal Stem Cell Function Is Regulated by Circadian Oscillations
▽Text abstracts▼Cell Stem Cell, Volume 13, Issue 6, 745-753, 10 October 2013
Human Epidermal Stem Cell Function Is Regulated by Circadian Oscillations
Peggy Janich, Kiana Toufighi, Guiomar Solanas,
Human skin copes with harmful environmental factors that are circadian in nature, yet how circadian rhythms modulate the function of human epidermal stem cells is mostly unknown. Here we show that in human epidermal stem cells and their differentiated counterparts, core clock genes peak in a successive and phased manner, establishing distinct temporal intervals during the 24 hr day period. Each of these successive clock waves is associated with a peak in the expression of subsets of transcripts that temporally segregate the predisposition of epidermal stem cells to respond to cues that regulate their proliferation or differentiation, such as TGF汕 and calcium. Accordingly, circadian arrhythmia profoundly affects stem cell function in culture and in vivo. We hypothesize that this intricate mechanism ensures homeostasis by providing epidermal stem cells with environmentally relevant temporal functional cues during the course of the day and that its perturbation may contribute to aging and carcinogenesis.

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