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Weekly Reports ㄗ104ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
Add Timeㄩ2013/12/16 16:28:12
1.      An in vivo study on the effect of scaffold geometry and growth factor release on the healing of bone defects
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 9, pages 687每696, September 2013
An in vivo study on the effect of scaffold geometry and growth factor release on the healing of bone defects
P. Yilgor, G. Yilmaz, & M. B. Onal, et al.                                    
The hypothesis of this study was that the extent of bone regeneration could be enhanced by using scaffolds with appropriate geometry, and that such an effect could be further increased by mimicking the natural timing of appearance of bone morphogenetic proteins BMP-2 and BMP-7 after fracture. Bioplotted poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) disks with four different fibre organizations were used to study the effect of 3D scaffold architecture on the healing of bone defects in a rat pelvis model. Moreover, one PCL construct was further modified by introducing a nanoparticulate sequential BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery system into this scaffold. Scaffolds and functionalized construct along with free nanocapsules were implanted using a rat iliac crest defect model. Six weeks post-implantation, the defects were evaluated by CT scan and histology. Analysis revealed that the basic architecture, having the highest pore volume for tissue ingrowth, presented the highest bone formation as determined by the bone mineral density (BMD) within the defect (144.2 ㊣ 7.1); about four-fold higher than that of the empty defect (34.9 ㊣ 10.7). It also showed the highest histological analysis scores with a high amount of bone formation within the defect, within the scaffold pores and along the outer surfaces of the scaffold. The basic scaffold carrying the BMP-2/BMP-7 delivery system showed significantly higher bone formation than the growth factor-free basic scaffold at 6 weeks (BMD 206.8 ㊣ 15.7). Histological analysis also revealed new bone formation in close to or in direct contact with the construct interface. This study indicates the importance of open and interconnecting pore geometry on the better healing of bone defects, and that this effect could be further increased by supplying growth factors, as is the case in nature.
2.      Long-Range Chromatin Contacts in Embryonic Stem Cells Reveal a Role for Pluripotency Factors and Polycomb Proteins in Genome Organization
▽Text abstracts▼Cell Stem Cell, Volume 13, Issue 5, 602-616, 12 September 2013
Long-Range Chromatin Contacts in Embryonic Stem Cells Reveal a Role for Pluripotency Factors and Polycomb Proteins in Genome Organization
The relationship between 3D organization of the genome and gene-regulatory networks is poorly understood. Here, we examined long-range chromatin interactions genome-wide in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), iPSCs, and fibroblasts and uncovered a pluripotency-specific genome organization that is gradually reestablished during reprogramming. Our data confirm that long-range chromatin interactions are primarily associated with the spatial segregation of open and closed chromatin, defining overall chromosome conformation. Additionally, we identified two further levels of genome organization in ESCs characterized by colocalization of regions with high pluripotency factor occupancy and strong enrichment for Polycomb proteins/H3K27me3, respectively. Underlining the independence of these networks and their functional relevance for genome organization, loss of the Polycomb protein Eed diminishes interactions between Polycomb-regulated regions without altering overarching chromosome conformation. Together, our data highlight a pluripotency-specific genome organization in which pluripotency factors such as Nanog and H3K27me3 occupy distinct nuclear spaces and reveal a role for cell-type-specific gene-regulatory networks in genome organization.
3.      Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain
Text abstractsBritish Journal of Cancer (2012) 107, S1每S2. doi:10.1038/bjc.2012.135
Occupational cancer burden in Great Britain
Lesley Rushton, Sally J Hutchings, & Lea Fortunato1, et al.
A sound knowledge base is required to target resources to reduce workplace exposure to carcinogens. This project aimed to provide an objective estimate of the burden of cancer in Britain due to occupation. This volume presents extensive analyses for all carcinogens and occupational circumstances defined as definite or probable human occupational carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This article outlines the structure of the supplement 每 two methodological papers (statistical approach and exposure assessment), eight papers presenting the cancer-specific results grouped by broad anatomical site, a paper giving industry sector results and one discussing work-related cancer-prevention strategies. A brief summary of the methods and an overview of the updated overall results are given in this introductory paper. A general discussion of the overall strengths and limitations of the study is also presented. Overall, 8010 (5.3%) total cancer deaths in Britain and 13, 598 cancer registrations were attributable to occupation in 2005 and 2004, respectively. The importance of cancer sites such as mesothelioma, sinonasal, lung, nasopharynx, breast, non-melanoma skin cancer, bladder, oesophagus, soft tissue sarcoma and stomach cancers are highlighted, as are carcinogens such as asbestos, mineral oils, solar radiation, silica, diesel engine exhaust, coal tars and pitches, dioxins, environmental tobacco smoke, radon, tetrachloroethylene, arsenic and strong inorganic mists, as well as occupational circumstances such as shift work and occupation as a painter or welder. The methods developed for this project are being adapted by other countries and extended to include social and economic impact evaluation.
4Staphylococcus aureus Degrades Neutrophil Extracellular Traps to Promote Immune Cell Death
▽Text abstracts▼Science 342 (6160): 863-866
Staphylococcus aureus Degrades Neutrophil Extracellular Traps to Promote Immune Cell Death
Vilasack Thammavongsa, Dominique M. Missiakas, & Olaf Schneewind, et al.
Bacterial invasion of host tissues triggers polymorphonuclear leukocytes to release DNA [neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)], thereby immobilizing microbes for subsequent clearance by innate defenses including macrophage phagocytosis. We report here that Staphylococcus aureus escapes these defenses by converting NETs to deoxyadenosine, which triggers the caspase-3每mediated death of immune cells. Conversion of NETs to deoxyadenosine requires two enzymes, nuclease and adenosine synthase, that are secreted by S. aureus and are necessary for the exclusion of macrophages from staphylococcal abscesses. Thus, the pathogenesis of S. aureus infections has evolved to anticipate host defenses and to repurpose them for the destruction of the immune system
5Skin epithelial cells as possible substitutes for ameloblasts during tooth regeneration
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative MedicineㄛVolume 7, Issue 12, pages 934每943, December 2013
Skin epithelial cells as possible substitutes for ameloblasts during tooth regeneration
Yihan Liu, Ming Jiang, & Wei Hao et al
The disappearance of ameloblasts in erupted teeth hampers the implementation of tissue engineering-based tooth regeneration. We aimed at utilizing skin epithelial cells as the appropriate substitute for ameloblasts. The conversion potential of 1 day postnatal rat skin epithelial cells to ameloblasts was investigated under the induction of dental papillae mesenchymal cells (DPMCs). Induction strategies had been designed both in vitro and in vivo. Markers for ameloblasts had been detected in skin epithelial cells, which showed a columnar appearance with the nuclei located at one side, under indirect co-culture with DPMCs in vitro. An enamel每dentine-like and tooth germ-like structure was formed by recombining skin epithelial pieces or cells with DPMCs after 14 days of implantation in rat renal capsule. Immunohistochemistry and cell labelling analysis further demonstrated that the enamel-forming cells were skin epithelium-derived. These results indicated that the skin epithelium-derived cells from postnatal rats have the potential to convert to functional ameloblasts under effective induction.

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