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Weekly Reports ㄗ101ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
Add Timeㄩ2013/12/16 16:11:20
1.       Mother's diet during pregnancy alters baby's DNA
▽Text abstracts▼Health report, BBC News, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-13119545
Mother's diet during pregnancy alters baby's DNA
By James Gallagher
A mother's diet during pregnancy can alter the DNA of her child and increase the risk of obesity, according to researchers.
The study, to be published in the journal Diabetes, showed that eating low levels of carbohydrate changed bits of DNA.
It then showed children with these changes were fatter.
The British Heart Foundation called for better nutritional and lifestyle support for women.
It is thought that a developing baby tries to predict the environment it will be born into, taking cues from its mother and adjusting its DNA.
 ※What is surprising is that it explains a quarter of the difference in the fatness of children§
Professor Keith Godfrey
University of Southampton Studies in animals have shown that changes in diet can alter the function of genes - known as epigenetic change.
It is a growing field trying to understand how the environment interacts with genes.
In this study, the researchers took samples from the umbilical cord and looked for "epigenetic markers".
They showed that mothers with early pregnancy diets low in carbohydrates, such as sugars and starch, had children with these markers.
They then showed a strong link between those same markers and a child's obesity at ages six and nine.
Professor Keith Godfrey, who is from the University of Southampton and led the international study, told the BBC: "What is surprising is that it explains a quarter of the difference in the fatness of children six to nine years later."
The report says the effect was "considerably greater" than that of birth weight and did not depend on how thin or fat the mother was.
The changes were noticed in the RXRA gene. This makes a receptor for vitamin A, which is involved in the way cells process fat.
Professor Godfrey said: "It is both a fascinating and potentially important piece of research.
"All women who become pregnant get advice about diet, but it is not always high up the agenda of health professionals.
"The research suggests women should follow the advice as it may have a long term influence on the baby's health after it is born."
Professor Mark Hanson, of the British Heart Foundation, said: "This study provides compelling evidence that epigenetic changes, at least in part, explain the link between a poor start to life and later disease risk.
"It strengthens the case for all women of reproductive age having greater access to nutritional, education and lifestyle support to improve the health of the next generation, and to reduce the risk of the conditions such as diabetes and heart disease, which often follow obesity."
2. The Tongue Enables Computer and Wheelchair Control for People with Spinal Cord Injury
▽Text abstracts▼Sci Transl Med 27 November 2013: Vol. 5, Issue 213, p. 213ra166
The Tongue Enables Computer and Wheelchair Control for People with Spinal Cord Injury
Jeonghee Kim, Hangue Park, & Joy Bruce, et al.
The Tongue Drive System (TDS) is a wireless and wearable assistive technology, designed to allow individuals with severe motor impairments such as tetraplegia to access their environment using voluntary tongue motion. Previous TDS trials used a magnetic tracer temporarily attached to the top surface of the tongue with tissue adhesive. We investigated TDS efficacy for controlling a computer and driving a powered wheelchair in two groups of able-bodied subjects and a group of volunteers with spinal cord injury (SCI) at C6 or above. All participants received a magnetic tongue barbell and used the TDS for five to six consecutive sessions. The performance of the group was compared for TDS versus keypad and TDS versus a sip-and-puff device (SnP) using accepted measures of speed and accuracy. All performance measures improved over the course of the trial. The gap between keypad and TDS performance narrowed for able-bodied subjects. Despite participants with SCI already having familiarity with the SnP, their performance measures were up to three times better with the TDS than with the SnP and continued to improve. TDS flexibility and the inherent characteristics of the human tongue enabled individuals with high-level motor impairments to access computers and drive wheelchairs at speeds that were faster than traditional assistive technologies but with comparable accuracy.
3. Effect of implantation on engineered skeletal muscle constructs
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 6, pages 434每442, June 2013
Effect of implantation on engineered skeletal muscle constructs
Michael L. Williams, Tatiana Y. Kostrominova, & Ellen M. Arruda, et al.
The development of engineered skeletal muscle would provide a viable tissue for replacement and repair of muscle damaged by disease or injury. Our current tissue-engineering methods result in three-dimensional (3D) muscle constructs that generate tension but do not advance phenotypically beyond neonatal characteristics. To develop to an adult phenotype, innervation and vascularization of the construct must occur. In this study, 3D muscle constructs were implanted into the hindlimb of a rat, along the sciatic nerve, with the sural nerve isolated, transected and sutured to the construct to encourage innervation. Aortic ring anchors were sutured to the tendons of the biceps femoris muscle so that the construct would move dynamically with the endogenous muscle. After 1 week in vivo, the constructs were explanted, evaluated for force production and stained for muscle, nerve and collagen markers. Implanted muscle constructs showed a developing capillary system, an epimysium-like outer layer of connective tissue and an increase in myofibre content. The beginning of 汐-bungarotoxin clustering suggests that neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) could form on the implanted muscle, given more time in vivo. Additionally, the constructs increased maximum isometric force from 192 ㊣ 41 米N to 549 ㊣ 103 米N (245% increase) compared to in vitro controls, which increased from 276 ㊣ 23 米N to 329 ㊣ 27米N (25% increase). These findings suggest that engineered muscle tissue survives 1 week of implantation and begins to develop the necessary interfaces needed to advance the phenotype toward adult muscle. However, in terms of force production, the muscle constructs need longer implantation times to fully develop an adult phenotype.
4. Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Volume 7, Issue 9, pages 729每741, September 2013
Teratoma formation of human embryonic stem cells in three-dimensional perfusion culture bioreactors
H. Stachelscheid, A. Wulf-Goldenberg, & K. Eckert, et al.
Teratoma formation in mice is today the most stringent test for pluripotency that is available for human pluripotent cells, as chimera formation and tetraploid complementation cannot be performed with human cells. The teratoma assay could also be applied for assessing the safety of human pluripotent cell-derived cell populations intended for therapeutic applications. In our study we examined the spontaneous differentiation behaviour of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in a perfused 3D multi-compartment bioreactor system and compared it with differentiation of hESCs and human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs) cultured in vitro as embryoid bodies and in vivo in an experimental mouse model of teratoma formation. Results from biochemical, histological/immunohistological and ultrastuctural analyses revealed that hESCs cultured in bioreactors formed tissue-like structures containing derivatives of all three germ layers. Comparison with embryoid bodies and the teratomas revealed a high degree of similarity of the tissues formed in the bioreactor to these in the teratomas at the histological as well as transcriptional level, as detected by comparative whole-genome RNA expression profiling. The 3D culture system represents a novel in vitro model that permits stable long-term cultivation, spontaneous multi-lineage differentiation and tissue formation of pluripotent cells that is comparable to in vivo differentiation. Such a model is of interest, e.g. for the development of novel cell differentiation strategies. In addition, the 3D in vitro model could be used for teratoma studies and pluripotency assays in a fully defined, controlled environment, alternatively to in vivo mouse models.
5. Negative pressure wound therapy or HRT?
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Wound Care, Vol. 22, Iss. 11, 14 Nov 2013, pp 573 - 581
Negative pressure wound therapy or HRT
 M H E Hermans, K Cutting
Objective: To investigate the similarities and differences between Hydration Response Technology (HRT) and negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with regard to wound bed preparation, and to devise a set of recommendations for their use on the basis of the opinion of two panels.
Method: An expert panel that analysed in vitro and clinical data as well as the similarities and differences between the two modalities was established. This culminated in a series of recommendations on which modality to use for which indication. These recommendations were presented to a Delphi panel, consisting of users of both NPWT and HRT-dressing. The panel was then asked to produce its own recommendations.
Results: The outcomes and recommendations of both panels were reported. NPWT is the preferred treatment modality for abdominal dehisced wounds, and to a lesser extent, for surgical wound healing by secondary intention. For all other indications, the treatment modalities are at least equal, with HRT-dressing often being the superior mode to treat wounds such as venous leg ulcers, arterial ulcers and vacuities.
Conclusion: In the opinion of the expert panel and the Delphi panel, both modalities share a number of clinical and non-clinical properties. However, because of the numerous advantages of HRT technology, HRT dressing has the potential to replace NPWT in a number of indications, where the patient, health-care providers and institutions may benefit.

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