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Weekly Reports ㄗ98ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
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Add Timeㄩ2013/8/12 10:47:30
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1. Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security
▽Text abstracts▼Science 2 August 2013: Vol. 341 no. 6145 pp. 508-513
 
Climate Change Impacts on Global Food Security
 
Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a ※climate-smart food system§ that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.
 
2. Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond
▽Text abstracts▼Cell Stem Cell, Volume 11, Issue 3, 291-301, 7 September 2012
 
Stem Cells in the Face: Tooth Regeneration and Beyond
Jeremy J. Mao, Darwin J. ProckopSee Affiliations
 
The face distinguishes one person from another. Postnatal orofacial tissues harbor rare cells that exhibit stem cell properties. Despite unmet clinical needs for reconstruction of tissues lost in congenital anomalies, infections, trauma, or tumor resection, how orofacial stem/progenitor cells contribute to tissue development, pathogenesis, and regeneration is largely obscure. This perspective article critically analyzes the current status of our understanding of orofacial stem/progenitor cells, identifies gaps in our knowledge, and highlights pathways for the development of regenerative therapies.
 
 
3. Do Pluripotent Stem Cells Exist in Adult Mice as Very Small Embryonic Stem Cells?
▽Text abstracts▼Stem Cell Reports, Volume 1, Issue 2, 198-208, 24 July 2013
 
Do Pluripotent Stem Cells Exist in Adult Mice as Very Small Embryonic Stem Cells?
Masanori Miyanishi, Yasuo Mori, Jun Seita, James Y. Chen
 
Very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs) isolated from bone marrow (BM) have been reported to be pluripotent. Given their nonembryonic source, they could replace blastocyst-derived embryonic stem cells in research and medicine. However, their multiple-germ-layer potential has been incompletely studied. Here, we show that we cannot find VSELs in mouse BM with any of the reported stem cell potentials, specifically for hematopoiesis. We found that: (1) most events within the ※VSEL§ flow-cytometry gate had little DNA and the cells corresponding to these events (2) could not form spheres, (3) did not express Oct4, and (4) could not differentiate into blood cells. These results provide a failure to confirm the existence of pluripotent VSELs.
 
4. Telomerase at the intersection of cancer and aging
▽Text abstracts▼Trends in Genetics, 22 July 2013
 
Telomerase at the intersection of cancer and aging
Bruno Bernardes de Jesus, Maria A. Blasco
 
Although cancer and aging have been studied as independent diseases, mounting evidence suggests that cancer is an aging-associated disease and that cancer and aging share many molecular pathways. In particular, recent studies validated telomerase activation as a potential therapeutic target for age-related diseases; in addition, abnormal telomerase expression and telomerase mutations have been associated with many different types of human tumor. Here, we revisit the connection between telomerase and cancer and aging in light of recent findings supporting a role for telomerase not only in telomere elongation, but also in metabolic fitness and Wnt activation. Understanding the physiological impact of telomerase regulation is fundamental given the therapeutic strategies that are being developed that involve telomerase modulation.
 
5. &Cancer associated fibroblasts* 每 more than meets the eye
▽Text abstracts▼Trends in Molecular Medicine, Volume 19, Issue 8, 447-453, 13 June 2013
 
&Cancer associated fibroblasts* 每 more than meets the eye
Shalom Madar, Ido Goldstein, Varda Rotter
 
Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a subpopulation of cells that reside within the tumor microenvironment and promotes the transformation process by encouraging tumor growth, angiogenesis, inflammation, and metastasis. CAF-specific proteins serve as both prognostic markers and targets for anticancer drugs. With the growing interest in CAFs, several controversial issues have been raised, including the genomic landscape of these cells, the identity of specific markers, and their cell of origin. Here, we tackle these debated issues and put forward a new definition for &CAF* as a cell &state* rather than a cell type. We hope this conceptualization can resolve the ongoing discrepancies revolving around CAF research and aid in designing better anti-cancer treatment strategies.
 
 

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