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Weekly Reports ㄗ95ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
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Add Timeㄩ2013/7/2 14:10:11
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1.Gene Targeting of a Disease-Related Gene in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem and Embryonic Stem Cells
▽Text abstracts▼Cell Stem Cell, Volume 5, Issue 1, 97-110, 18 June 2009
 
Gene Targeting of a Disease-Related Gene in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem and Embryonic Stem Cells
 
Jizhong Zou, Morgan L. Maeder, Prashant Mali, et al
 
We report here homologous recombination (HR)-mediated gene targeting of two different genes in human iPS cells (hiPSCs) and human ES cells (hESCs). HR-mediated correction of a chromosomally integrated mutant GFP reporter gene reaches efficiencies of 0.14%每0.24% in both cell types transfected by donor DNA with plasmids expressing zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs). Engineered ZFNs that induce a sequence-specific double-strand break in the GFP gene enhanced HR-mediated correction by > 1400-fold without detectable alterations in stem cell karyotypes or pluripotency. Efficient HR-mediated insertional mutagenesis was also achieved at the endogenous PIG-A locus, with a > 200-fold enhancement by ZFNs targeted to that gene. Clonal PIG-A null hESCs and iPSCs with normal karyotypes were readily obtained. The phenotypic and biological defects were rescued by PIG-A transgene expression. Our study provides the first demonstration of HR-mediated gene targeting in hiPSCs and shows the power of ZFNs for inducing specific genetic modifications in hiPSCs, as well as hESCs.
 
2.The potential of biophotonic techniques in stem cell tracking and monitoring of tissue regeneration applied to cardiac stem cell therapy
▽Text abstracts▼J Biophotonics. 2009 Nov;2(11):669-81.
 
The potential of biophotonic techniques in stem cell tracking and monitoring of tissue regeneration applied to cardiac stem cell therapy
Brian C. Wilson, Alex Vitkin, Dennis L. Matthews, et al
 
The use of injected stem cells, leading to regeneration of ischemic heart tissue, for example, following coronary artery occlusion, has emerged as a major new option for managing &heart attack* patients. While some clinical trials have been encouraging, there have also been failures and there is little understanding of the multiplicity of factors that lead to the outcome. In this overview paper, the opportunities and challenges in applying biophotonic techniques to regenerative medicine, exemplified by the challenge of stem cell therapy of ischemic heart disease, are considered. The focus is on optical imaging to track stem cell distribution and fate, and optical spectroscopies and/or imaging to monitor the structural remodeling of the tissue and the resulting functional changes. The scientific, technological, and logistics issues involved in moving some of these techniques from pre-clinical research mode ultimately into the clinic are also highlighted. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
 
 

3.Type 1 diabetes vaccine hailed as 'significant step'

▽Text abstracts▼BBC News Health 27 June 2013
 
It may be possible to reverse type 1 diabetes by training a patient's own immune system to stop attacking their body, an early trial suggests.
Their immune system destroys the cells that make insulin, the hormone needed to control blood sugar levels.
A study in 80 patients, published in the journal Science Translational Medicine, showed a vaccine could retrain their immune system.
Experts described the results as a "significant step".
Normally a vaccine teaches the immune system to attack bacteria or viruses that cause disease, such as the polio virus.
Researchers at the Stanford University Medical Centre used a vaccine with the opposite effect - to make the immune system cease its assault.
In patients with type 1 diabetes, the immune system destroys beta cells in the pancreas. This means the body is unable to produce enough insulin and regular injections of the hormone are needed throughout life.
It is a different disease to type 2 diabetes, which can be caused by an unhealthy diet.
The vaccine was targeted to the specific white blood cells which attack beta cells. After patients were given weekly injections for three months, the levels of those white blood cells fell.
'New concept'
Blood tests also suggested that beta cell function was better in patients given the vaccine than in those treated only with insulin.
However, other parts of the immune system seemed to be left intact.
Prof Lawrence Steinman said: "We're very excited by these results, which suggest that the immunologist's dream of shutting down just a single subset of dysfunctional immune cells without wrecking the whole immune system may be attainable.
"This vaccine is a new concept. It's shutting off a specific immune response."
 
4.Volume Overload of Fluid Resuscitation in Acutely Burned Patients Using Transpulmonary Thermodilution Technique
▽Text abstracts▼ Journal of Burn Care & Research, May/June 2013, Volume 34, Issue 3, p 349每354.
 
Volume Overload of Fluid Resuscitation in Acutely Burned Patients Using Transpulmonary Thermodilution Technique
Aboelatta, Yasser MD, MRCS; Abdelsalam, Ahmed MD
 
In recent years, transpulmonary thermodilution techniques (PICCO) offer an attractive and more ideal end point for fluid resuscitation. The study included 30 adult burned patients between 25 and 60% TBSA. The study group received fluid resuscitation guided by the PICCO. The control group resuscitated using Parkland formula, guided by traditional monitoring parameters. Fluid administration in the initial 72 hours after burn injury was significantly higher in the study group. Furthermore, it was difficult, perhaps even impossible, to achieve the goals of normovolemia and cardiac output normalization during the early postburn period. Nevertheless, the attempt to achieve them was associated with a significant tissue edema. Although PICCO is a very beneficial tool in the estimation of amounts of fluid resuscitation, the values of ideal end points need to be adjusted in burn patients. The traditional values of intrathoracic blood volume, extravascular lung water, and cardiac index are associated with significant tissue edema that can easily complicate sepsis in these immunocompromised patients.

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