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Weekly Reports ㄗ94ㄘon International Trends of Cutting 每edge Life Science Development
Add Timeㄩ2013/7/2 14:03:25
1. Mechanosensitive Hair Cell-like Cells from Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
▽Text abstracts▼Cell, Volume 141, Issue 4, 704-716, 14 May 2010
Mechanosensitive Hair Cell-like Cells from Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Kazuo Oshima, Kunyoo Shin, Marc Diensthuber, et al
Mechanosensitive sensory hair cells are the linchpin of our senses of hearing and balance. The inability of the mammalian inner ear to regenerate lost hair cells is the major reason for the permanence of hearing loss and certain balance disorders. Here, we present a stepwise guidance protocol starting with mouse embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells, which were directed toward becoming ectoderm capable of responding to otic-inducing growth factors. The resulting otic progenitor cells were subjected to varying differentiation conditions, one of which promoted the organization of the cells into epithelial clusters displaying hair cell-like cells with stereociliary bundles. Bundle-bearing cells in these clusters responded to mechanical stimulation with currents that were reminiscent of immature hair cell transduction currents.

2. Nerve cells 're-grown' in rats after spinal injury
▽Text abstracts▼BBC News  2013.06.26
Helen Briggs
Nerve cells 're-grown' in rats after spinal injury
US scientists say they have made progress in repairing spinal cord injuries in paralysed rats.
Rats regained some bladder control after surgery to transplant nerve cells into the spinal cord, combined with injections of a cocktail of chemicals.
The study, published in the Journal of Neuroscience, could raise hopes for one day treating paralysed patients.
But UK experts say it will take several years of research before human clinical trials can be considered.
Scientists have tried for decades to use transplants of nerve cells to restore function in paralysed animals by bridging the gap in the broken spinal cord.
However, coaxing the cells to grow and form new connections has proved elusive.
One problem is the growth of scar tissue as the body's responds to injury, which seems to block cell regeneration.
US scientists carried out complex surgery to transplant nerves from the rodents' ribs into the gap in the middle of their spinal cord.
They also used a special "glue" that boosts cell growth together with a chemical that breaks down scar tissue in an attempt to encourage the nerve cells to regenerate and connect up.
The researchers found for the first time that injured nerve cells could re-grow for "remarkably long distances" (about 2cm).
They said that while the rats did not regain the ability to walk, they did recover some bladder function.
Lead author Dr Jerry Silver of Case Western Reserve Medical School, Cleveland, Ohio, said: "Although animals did not regain the ability to walk, they did recover a remarkable measure of urinary control."
Co-author Dr Yu-Shang Lee of the Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, added: "This is the first time that significant bladder function has been restored via nerve regeneration after a devastating cord injury."
The findings may help future efforts to restore other functions lost after spinal cord injury.
They also raise hope that similar strategies could one day be used to restore bladder function in people with severe spinal cord injuries.
Dr Silver said further animal experiments will be needed to see if the technique could work in humans.
He told BBC News: "If we can show in a larger animal that our technique works and does no additional harm I see no reason why we couldn't move rapidly in humans."
'Remarkable advance'
Commenting on the study, Dr Elizabeth Bradbury of King's College London said several challenges must be overcome before the therapy can be trialled in patients.
"There are a number of challenges before this therapy can be brought to the clinic," she said.
"Nevertheless this is a remarkable advance which offers great hope for the future of restoring bladder function to spinal injured patients and if these challenges can be met we could be reaching clinical trials within three to five years."
Dr John Williams, head of neuroscience and mental health at the Wellcome Trust, said the implications for people are not yet clear.
"This is one of a number of ways that one can approach restoration of bladder function in paralysed patients, but careful studies will be needed to optimise which of the technologies under investigation might be of most benefit to patients."
3. Immediate Burn Excision Fails to Reduce Injury Progression
▽Text abstracts▼Journal of Burn Care & Research, May/June 2013, Volume 34, Issue 3, p 153每160.
Immediate Burn Excision Fails to Reduce Injury Progression
Macri, Lauren K., Singer, Adam J., Taira, Breena R., et al
The contact thermal injury model in the pig was used to determine whether immediate burn excision could alter the extent of injury progression. It was hypothesized that immediate excision of burns would prevent or reduce tissue necrosis in the uninjured interspaces. Four comb burns were created on the back of each animal, using a brass comb preheated in hot water (100∼C) for 5 minutes. This brass comb produced four distinctive burns sites separated by three ※interspaces§ of unburned skin, which were to undergo progressive injury. Immediately after burn creation, half of the full-thickness burns were excised leaving the unburned interspaces intact. Two full-thickness excisional wounds per pig with the dimensions identical to the comb burns were included as controls. Burn injury progression was microscopically assessed and reported as the percentage of unburned interspaces that progressed to full-thickness necrosis 7 days after injury. Scar formation was grossly evaluated on day 28 after injury and reported as the total surface area (in square centimeters) of the scar. A total of 24 combs with 72 interspaces were evenly distributed among the three groups. The unburned interspaces of both comb burns and excised comb burns had undergone progressive injury and were 100% dead (24/24; ie, necrotic and/or apoptotic) 7 days postinjury (95% confidence interval, 86每100%) for both. However, interspaces of the control excisional wounds maintained complete viability, that is, no necrosis or apoptosis (0/24 [0%]; 95% confidence interval, 0每14%; P < .001). There was no significant difference in both surface area and depth of scar resulting from excised and nonexcised comb burns. Immediate burn excision neither prevented nor limited burn injury progression.
4. Progression of Wound pH During the Course of Healing in Burns
▽Text abstracts▼ Journal of Burn Care & Research, May/June 2013,Volume 34, Issue 3, p 201每208.
Progression of Wound pH During the Course of Healing in Burns
Sharpe, Justin R., Booth, Simon, Jubin, Kasia, et al
The aim of this study was to measure the pH on the wound surface of 30 burn patients and test the hypothesis that wound surface pH is correlated to healing time and burn depth. Inclusion criteria were any adult outpatient with burn injury. Patient age was 17 to 75 years (mean, 44), burn depth ranged from superficial to full thickness with a TBSA of 0.4 to 4%. Cause of burn included scalds, flame burn, and contact burns. On admission, and at each dressing change, the pH on the wound surface was measured. The pH in both healing and nonhealing wounds was found to decrease with each dressing change. At the second dressing change, wounds that went on to heal were found to have a significantly lower pH of 7.32 in comparison with pH 7.73 in wounds that failed to heal and therefore required subsequent grafting (P = .004). Wound pH was also correlated to depth at the second dressing change (superficial = pH 6.05, full thickness = pH 8.0). The correlation between pH and wound outcome could be used as an additional diagnostic tool to predict poor healing in wounds. Early identification of a nonhealing wound may allow a more aggressive treatment regimen, including skin grafting, to bring about rapid wound healing.

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