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Weekly Reports £¨93£©on International Trends of Cutting ¨Cedge Life Science Development
Add Time£º2013/5/21 8:52:52
1. Generating a Biological Pacemaker - Tackling Arrhythmias the Stem Cell Way¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Recent Patents on Regenerative Medicine, Volume 3, 3 Issues, 2013, Pp: 111 - 131
Generating a Biological Pacemaker - Tackling Arrhythmias the Stem Cell Way 
Kavitha Sankaranarayanan
Electronic pacemakers have succeeded in saving the lives of millions by providing medical palliation for cardiac conduction abnormalities. However, the caveats associated with usage of the same have prompted research in the development of a biological alternative which could replace or supplement its electronic counterpart. Biopacemaking could be done either by genetic engineering, cellular therapy or a combination of both. Ion channels and calcium handling proteins which form the key molecular players of the cardiac pacemaker action potential were the primary candidates for gene therapy based biopacemaking. Modulation of ion channels and other pacemaking associated proteins, either by gene delivery/ cell therapy or a combination of both have been researched in great detail. Pluripotent/ multipotent stem cells serve as excellent vehicles for carrying such genes which have been tailored to ensure that the implanted cell transforms into a pacemaker-like cell. Implantation of hybrid/ tandem pacemakers could overcome the risk associated with the malfunction of either the biological or electronic pacemaker in the patient. This review article highlights the recent developments in this area of biopacemaking, classifies it based on the principle of possible execution and discusses to fair length patents that could project the biological pacemaker into the clinical scenario very soon.
2. ScienceShot: A Future Baby's Revealing First Photos
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Science, 16 May 2013
ScienceShot: A Future Baby's Revealing First Photos
Gretchen Vogel  
Time-lapse imaging of embryos growing in the clinic can increase the chances of identifying those most likely to develop into a successful pregnancy, according to a new study. When couples use in vitro fertilization (IVF) to conceive, more than one embryo often results, and doctors have to choose which ones to implant in the mother. Researchers have now developed a method that uses time-lapse photography to more accurately observe how long an embryo takes to develop from fertilization to the hollow ball of cells called a blastocyst (pictured) about 5 days later. Embryos that take longer are more likely to carry chromosomal abnormalities that lead to miscarriage. In a paper published today in Reproductive BioMedicine Online, the team reports that embryos that scored low risk on their evaluation scale had a 61% chance of resulting in a live birth, compared with a 19% chance for medium-risk embryos. No embryos in the high-risk category produced a pregnancy. The technique is noninvasive and much less expensive than current genetic screening methods, which require removing a few cells from the blastocyst.
3. Cyclophosphamide Triggers Follicle Activation and ¡°Burnout¡±; AS101 Prevents Follicle Loss and Preserves Fertility
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Sci Transl Med 15 May 2013: Vol. 5, Issue 185, p. 185ra62
Cyclophosphamide Triggers Follicle Activation and ¡°Burnout¡±; AS101 Prevents Follicle Loss and Preserves Fertility
Premature ovarian failure and infertility are major side effects of chemotherapy treatments in young cancer patients. A more thorough understanding of the mechanism behind chemotherapy-induced follicle loss is necessary to develop new methods to preserve fertility in these patients. We show that the alkylating agent cyclophosphamide (Cy) activates the growth of the quiescent primordial follicle population in mice, resulting in loss of ovarian reserve. Despite the initial massive apoptosis observed in growing, though not in resting, follicles of Cy-treated mice, differential follicle counts demonstrated both a decrease in primordial follicles and an increase in early growing follicles. Immunohistochemistry showed that granulosa cells were undergoing proliferation. Analysis of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway demonstrated that Cy increased phosphorylation of proteins that stimulate follicle activation in the oocytes and granulosa cells. Coadministration of an immunomodulator, AS101, reduced follicle activation, thereby increasing follicle reserve and rescuing fertility after Cy, and also increased the efficacy of Cy against breast cancer cell lines. These findings suggest that the mechanism in Cy-induced loss of ovarian reserve is accelerated primordial follicle activation, which results in a ¡°burnout¡± effect and follicle depletion. By preventing this activation, AS101 shows potential as an ovarian-protective agent, which may be able to preserve fertility in female cancer patients.
4.The Gracefully Aging Immune System
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Sci Transl Med, Vol. 5, Issue 185, p. 185ps8
The Gracefully Aging Immune System
Prolonged life expectancy in the 20th century has been one of humankind¡¯s greatest triumphs. However, the substantial increase in the human life span has ushered in a new concern: healthy aging. Because infectious diseases prominently contribute to morbidity in the particularly vulnerable elderly population, strategies for preventing these diseases would have a clear impact on improving healthy aging. Thus, vaccines and immunization strategies tailored for the elderly population are needed, and vaccines should be developed to take into consideration the peculiar age-induced variations of immune responsiveness. The conference ¡°Ageing and Immunity¡° recently held in Siena, Italy, has reviewed and discussed several possible causes of immune senescence, as well as strategies for counteracting this waning of immune responsiveness and for restoring immunocompetence. In addition, examples of diseases that should be targeted by vaccination in the senior population were considered.
5.Young at Heart
¡¾Text abstracts¡¿Cell, Volume 153, Issue 4, 743-745, 9 May 2013
Young at Heart
Leslie A. Leinwand, Brooke C. Harrison
The most common form of heart failure occurs with normal systolic function and often involves cardiac hypertrophy in the elderly. To clarify the biological mechanisms that drive cardiac hypertrophy in aging, we tested the influence of circulating factors using heterochronic parabiosis, a surgical technique in which joining of animals of different ages leads to a shared circulation. After 4 weeks of exposure to the circulation of young mice, cardiac hypertrophy in old mice dramatically regressed, accompanied by reduced cardiomyocyte size and molecular remodeling. Reversal of age-related hypertrophy was not attributable to hemodynamic or behavioral effects of parabiosis, implicating a blood-borne factor. Using modified aptamer-based proteomics, we identified the TGF-¦Â superfamily member GDF11 as a circulating factor in young mice that declines with age. Treatment of old mice to restore GDF11 to youthful levels recapitulated the effects of parabiosis and reversed age-related hypertrophy, revealing a therapeutic opportunity for cardiac aging.

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